To-date only 21 clinical cases of Actinobaculum schaalii infection have been published, and A. schaalii has been considered a rare cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) and urosepsis. Between y 2005 and 2008, we isolated A. schaalii from 55 predisposed elderly patients. In these cases, microscopic findings of coccoid rods in wet smears of urine gave rise to clinical suspicion and subsequently to its isolation from urine. Typically only scant growth of A. schaalii occurred after incubation of the urine for 24 h, but it became visible after 2 days of incubation in 5% CO2. Preliminary biochemical identification was carried out by combining the API Coryne and Rapid ID32A test systems, and the identification was later confirmed by partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing. During the 4-y period, A. schaalii caused septicaemia, UTIs and asymptomatic bacteriuria. One patient was later infected with Actinobaculum massiliense. The incidence of A. schaalii infections is much higher than previously reported. We present numerous case reports and describe the bacteriological and clinical characteristics of this overlooked uropathogen.