Calcium electroporation is a potential novel anti-cancer treatment where high calcium concentrations are introduced into cells by electroporation, a method where short, high voltage pulses induce transient permeabilisation of the plasma membrane allowing passage of molecules into the cytosol. Calcium is a tightly regulated, ubiquitous second messenger involved in many cellular processes including cell death. Electroporation increases calcium uptake leading to acute and severe ATP depletion associated with cancer cell death. This comprehensive review describes published data about calcium electroporation applied in vitro, in vivo, and clinically from the first publication in 2012. Calcium electroporation has been shown to be a safe and efficient anti-cancer treatment in clinical studies with cutaneous metastases and recurrent head and neck cancer. Normal cells have been shown to be less affected by calcium electroporation than cancer cells and this difference might be partly induced by differences in membrane repair, expression of calcium transporters, and cellular structural changes. Interestingly, both clinical data and preclinical studies have indicated a systemic immune response induced by calcium electroporation. New cancer treatments are needed, and calcium electroporation represents an inexpensive and efficient treatment with few side effects, that could potentially be used worldwide and for different tumor types.